Portons-nous bien

Problématique

Dans le cadre de certains portages Ada, on peut souhaiter continuer à faire vivre un temps le code legacy tout en commençant à utiliser le code porté.

Si, à l’issue du portage, on découvre un problème ou une évolution dans le code legacy, on devra alors reporter les modifications induites dans le code porté. On peut aussi avoir la situation inverse. En d’autres termes, les codes devront coexister.

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What did you Expect?

Pour assurer un certain nombre de services au sein de votre application Ada, il peut être intéressant et élégant d’utiliser des applications déjà existantes. Par exemple, si je dois faire des requêtes FTP, il est évidemment plus simple d’utiliser le client du même nom. Si l’application que vous voulez utiliser est en mode interactif (c’est le cas de la commande ftp) alors, la tâche risque d’être ardue.

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Securing IIoT communications using OPC UA PubSub and Trusted Platform Modules

In the Industry 4.0 context, data are a valuable asset that must be protected. OPC UA PubSub enables secure and interoperable solutions, but authentication of IIoT devices remains a sensitive issue. This article presents a novel approach based on open source software, using a Trusted Platform Module to protect secrets on devices, and evaluate the security level on a predictive maintenance use case.

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Generating and verifying configuration data with OVADO²®

The OVADO²®1 tool has been used for more than a decade to formally check whether system configuration data comply with their rules in the context of railway systems2. OVADO²® is currently deployed in SIL4 processes compliant with the safety requirements of the CENELEC EN 50128 standard. In these processes, it is considered a T2-class tool since it only helps to verify the system. This article describes how the OVADO²® tool has been used, for the first time, by Systerel to formally generate equipment configuration data derived from the system configuration data.

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Back-to-back Testing

Formal methods to control the compliance of software implementations

Back-to-back zebras

Back-to-back testing (B2BT) techniques are used to verify that two products of a software development process are equivalent. By running the two products “back to back” on a set of test cases, it is verified that they produce the same output. If the scenarios are chosen carefully and the two runs produce the same results, it can be inferred that the two products are equivalent with some level of confidence.

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On a marché avec la lune

La lune selon Méliès

Dans le cadre d’un projet réalisé pour l’un de ses clients, Systerel a dû trouver et mettre en œuvre une solution permettant d’intégrer au sein d’une application Ada2012 un mécanisme permettant de modifier simplement et à la volée le comportement de cette dernière sans avoir à modifier et donc à recompiler le code Ada2012 mis en œuvre.

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Un échafaudage pour le développement de vos applications Ada

Un échafaudage

Dans la phase de construction ou de rénovation de bâtiments, un soin tout particulier doit être apporté à la mise en place d’échafaudages. Ces derniers permettent un accès au chantier efficace et sûr pour les artisans et le matériel.

Pour le développement d’une application, c’est exactement la même chose, votre échafaudage sera ici l’environnement de développement.

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Un code a les preuves du temps

A warpped clock

Au travers de l’article Démarche de portage d’un “legacy” Ada nous avions présenté les principaux problèmes pouvant être rencontrés lors d’un portage d’un legacy Ada et la façon de les adresser au mieux. L’approche ainsi proposée était « classique » et elle ne faisait aucunement appel aux méthodes formelles au travers par exemple de la technologie SPARK.

Dans le présent article, nous allons vous présenter en quoi la technologie SPARK peut conforter cette approche « classique ».

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On n’a pas tous les jours vingt ans…

Berthe Sylva vers 1925 — En référence au titre de cet article…

Depuis maintenant une bonne dizaine d’années, les industriels doivent mener à bien des programmes de rénovation de systèmes développés en moyenne depuis plus de vingt ans. Ces rénovations impliquent généralement une remise à niveau aussi bien matérielle que logicielle.

Dans ce cadre, Systerel accompagne ses clients et ce dans des secteurs aussi variés que le transport, la défense ou l’avionique.

Ces développements nous ont ainsi amenés à avoir une réflexion rétrospective sur les changements opérés depuis plus de vingt ans sur la façon de développer du logiciel critique.

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Use of B method for dynamic structures in S2OPC

The software B method has so far been mainly used in the industrial world to develop safety critical software with very basic memory management limited to arrays of fixed size defined at compilation time.

We present here an alternative approach for modelling software based on a more classic memory management with dynamically allocated complex data structures accessed through pointers.

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An overview of the GPR technology

GPR diagram

Implementing the various components of a software project can be a tedious task. This is why, for many years, a set of tools has been developed to facilitate, secure and systematize it.

This article is an introduction to one of the existing solutions named GNAT GPR (Gnat PRoject).

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Certificate trust chain validation in OPC UA

Stamp

OPC UA client/server protocol security is based on application certificates, each application shall trust each other. Determining if a certificate is trusted might include verification of a trust chain in cases that were not expected at first sight. This article explains how to validate a certificate to pass OPC UA certification 1 and hence how to configure correctly certificate validation to ensure your application certificate is accepted.

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Porting an Ada legacy software

Ada Lovelace

Porting an Ada legacy software can be a delicate task despite the intrinsic qualities of the Ada language such as, for example, its true portability. This article identifies the main problems that may be encountered and how they can best be addressed.

This article is about the Ada language but, in terms of approach, some points are transposable to other languages.

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S2OPC — Safe, Secure, Open Source OPC-UA

The benefits of open source

S2OPC logo

Following the INGOPCS R&D project initiated with the support of the ANSSI, Systerel has built upon its experience of safe critical systems to develop a free and secure OPC UA stack under the Apache 2.0 license: Safe and Secure OPC (S2OPC).

In this article, we will give an overview of OPC UA, describe the S2OPC product, and then focus on the benefits and challenges of the open source approach for such a development.

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Publish-Subscribe Pattern 1/2

This series of two posts presents an overview of the Publish/Subscribe pattern and analyses the features of some Pub/Sub implementations.

What is Pub/Sub? 1

The publish subscribe pattern is a messaging pattern, where publishers publish messages to topics and subscribers subscribe to topics to receive messages. In this pattern, publishers and subscribers are not directly connected to each other (loosely coupling).

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Mininet and Performance Evaluation

Mininet is a network emulator. With Mininet, it is possible to create virtual hosts linked through virtual switches and links. Programs are executed on a single machine, but on different virtual hosts. This creates a network test bench which emulates complex (possibly corrupted or degraded) topologies.

As network emulation is run on a single machine, it is easy to automate tests and run them frequently.

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S3 Formal Verification Solution — Instanciated Systems (4/4)

Hazard zone

Some systems are constructed by instantiating some generic design patterns on a collection of items (i.e. data). In the railway industry, the most widespread use of this mechanism is found for IXL, and to a lesser extend track-side ERTMS and CBTC systems.

While the overall structure of the S3 solutions dedicated to these kind of systems is not very different from that of the “standard” solutions described in the post about S3 workflow, they still admit some specificities. This section follows the structure of the aforementioned post and address these specificities.

This section will focus on IXL systems, but most of it could be adapted to other instantiated systems.

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S3 Formal Verification Solution — Workflows (3/4)

This post gives a generic description of the S3-based formal safety verification workflows. It starts with a short description of typical safety critical system development processes used in the industry. The two next section gives respectively a brief introduction to the S3 Modeling Languages, and a description of the development of the Safety Specification against which the system is to be verified. The rest of the section presents the S3 workflows together with the architecture and techniques used to ensure the trustworthiness of the solution.

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S3 Formal Verification Solution — Introduction (2/4)

Introduction

The ever-rising use of software-based systems to fulfill safety-critical missions calls for methods to ensure the adequacy of these systems to their missions. Most industrial sectors have brought an answer in the form of standards such as EN-50128 for railways, DO-178C for aviation, ISO-26262 for automotive, or more generally IEC-61508 for critical systems. All these standards have in common the central role given to test-based validation techniques. However, alternate and usually complementary techniques, grouped under the banner of “Formal Methods”, are gaining increasing attention for the development and validation of these systems. In particular, the “Model Checking” technique has seen the multiplication of its application fields in the last decade.

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S3 Formal Verification — Executive Summary (1/4)

Systerel certifiable S3 logo

Formal Verification is the act of mathematically proving that a system respects some properties under a number of hypotheses. When such a property is proved to hold, it means that it is impossible to find an input scenario satisfying the hypotheses in which the system would falsify this property.

Systerel Smart Solver (S3) is a formal verification solution able to perform a proof of the safety of a critical system after its design (i.e. a posteriori). This solution, combining a specialized modeling language (HLL) with a SAT-based symbolic model checker, has shown to be particularly efficient in handling industrial-size critical systems coming from various domains such as railways or avionics.

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Blog opening

Systerel opens its blog dedicated to technical topics. You will find there some articles related to Systerel products such as Systerel Smart Solver or S2OPC, but also articles providing feedback on how we work and on the implementation of technologies that we consider interesting in our production environments.

In this way, we imagine that we can provide you with better information on our products and how we work, but also technical guides to address some problems.

Do not hesitate to share back your comments.

Have a good read.